Wider Source Separation

Wide tow sources can increase efficiency.  Alternatively, a combination of dense receiver spreads and wider sources can deliver cost-effective dense spatial sampling with improved near-offset distribution. Both shallow and deeper targets can be optimally imaged by tuning the configuration.

Read about PGS's tailored acquisition solutions with the benefits of wide-tow sources in this First Break article, ‘Redefining marine towed-streamer acquisition’

Efficiency

Marine seismic source arrays are traditionally towed between the innermost two streamers. The resulting CMP-surface-coverage-per-sail-line is sometimes referred to as the 'brush'. The width of this coverage brush corresponds to half the width of the streamer spread and the brush grows wider with increasing source separation. Consequently, sail-line separation can be increased to gain efficiency.

In 2020, PGS completed the second Viking Graben GeoStreamer X survey, using a single vessel operation, successfully towing a 250 m wide source with triple arrays, with sources distributed very close to the streamer front ends. 

Ramform Vanguard tows 250m wide source on GeoStreamer x Viking Graben 2020 survey
Ramform Vanguard tows a record 250m wide source on GeoStreamer X Viking Graben 2020 survey

 

Improved Near Offsets

If the sail-line separation is not adjusted but is based upon the nominal sail-line separation for ‘conventional’ source towing, then the zero-fold sublines are mitigated by the fold contributions from the sublines of the adjacent sail lines in an interleaved manner.

With this solution, sail-line efficiency is not changed. Instead, the near offset distribution will be improved for each subline. The improvement in the near-offset coverage for shallow AVO analysis is clear in the slider below, showing a comparison of a standard source set-up with a wide tow source configuration. The wide-tow source approach, combined with a high-density acquisition, can help to resolve imaging challenges with shallow exploration targets in shallow water areas such as the Barents Sea.

Other Configurations

Wide source towing is not restricted to dual or triple source configurations. The concept can be applied to configurations with higher source counts. The ultimate vision is to distribute many smaller sources, e.g. across the front-end of a streamer spread, or throughout the spread. Distributed source solutions are however not yet feasible with towed marine seismic technology and inventory. However, in light of recent developments in marine vibrators and alternative source technologies such as eSeismic, distributed sources may become reality in the not-too-distant future.

Slider showing the near-offset distribution for a quad-source configuration with 12.5 m standard source separation (left) and 62.5 m wide source separation (right). The streamer separation is 50 m in both examples. The red dashed lines indicate the center of each sail line. CMP-X positions are along the x-axis, and source-receiver offsets are along the y-axis. The wide-tow source configuration provides an improved near offset coverage for shallow AVO analysis.