Technical Library

  • EAGE 2021: Decarbonization the Catalyst for a New Geoscience Era?

    Author: Andrew Long
    Industry Insights - 26 October 2021

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    Held in Amsterdam on October 17-22, the annual EAGE conference provided a particularly interesting industry forum as the world moves into a lower carbon future. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) featured strongly in the program, and the proportional CCS content of future conferences is expected to grow substantially. I comment on short-term applications of surface seismic methods and geological paradigms to CCS and note that much R&D into both geophysical and geochemical aspects is necessary to support the likely scale of CCS for global net-zero goals.

    Synergies between towed streamer and ocean bottom node (OBN) acquisition had a high profile—with particular emphasis upon wide-tow multi-source developments, low-frequency seismic considerations, and various continuous wavefield source concepts. For seismic imaging, Full Waveform Inversion (FWI) has progressed beyond a velocity model building tool to now yield seismic interpretation deliverables of various sophistication. The most complete realization combines model building and full-wavefield least-squares migration into an abbreviated workflow for rapid project turnaround. Overall, it is evident that greater seismic acquisition and imaging effort, combined with better integration of geoscience and engineering methods, is necessary to solve long-standing conventional hydrocarbon discovery and recovery challenges, and to meet the unique subsurface resolution and characterization requirements for the transition to a net-zero carbon emissions. This may seem familiar, but a clear urgency exists to accelerate access to better data—augmented of course by machine learning and other automation platforms—and to throw everything at previously unassailable problems on quite grand scales.

    An elephant in the room is whether the challenge of decarbonizing the planet with sustainable, affordable and accessible energy sources can motivate a new generation and boost recruitment to the geosciences and engineering – and on what timescale. Several forum discussions attempted to address these challenges.

  • Rock Physics: From Basics to the Validation of Advanced Seismic Technology Platforms

    Author: Andrew Long
    Industry Insights - 28 June 2021

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    Five short webinars that focus on several aspects of rock physics are now available on-demand at These address fundamental challenges related to the use of rock physics: How can we build robust saturated rock physics models of a heterogeneous earth? How can machine learning and geologically-consistent rock physics modeling workflows reduce exploration uncertainty? How can FWI models augmented by rock-physics transformations overcome missing low frequencies? What low-frequency amplitude and phase issues in broadband seismic data are critical to rock physics estimation workflows? How can rock physics estimation workflows validate new seismic technology platforms in frontier areas with minimal-to-no well control? Throughout the five-part mini-series, emphasis is given to rock physics being the bridge that connects geophysics and geology, and that guides QI efforts. Geologically-consistent rock models can be built that are augmented by FWI models, and FWI models can be reliably transformed into robust elastic low frequency models. With these platforms, various global case studies illustrate how carefully processed multisensor broadband seismic data can therefore be used to predict accurate lithology and fluid properties—even when well control is poor.

  • GeoStreamer X Delivers Near-field Multi-Azimuth Dataset for Accurate Lead Characterisation, South Viking Graben, Norway

    Author: Cyrille Reiser, Eric Mueller
    GeoExpro - 10 June 2021

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    PGS has recently acquired and processed an innovative multi-azimuth multisensor survey in the prolific South Viking Graben, Norway. The dataset delivers reliable attributes for accurate reservoir characterization. This area has provided numerous successes in multiple plays over the past decade and more recently the focus is on potential near-field opportunities.

    This quantitative interpretation project examines the various Tertiary to Permian reservoir levels using GeoStreamer X data combined with many wells present in and around the area of interest. For the latter, an interactive rock physics modeling product (PGS rockAVO) has been used, enabling a rapid assessment of the elastic property variation as well as the prestack seismic response to changes in reservoir properties (such as, porosity, saturation and volume of clay).

    By integrating this new dataset with regional well information, many of the exploration and near-field exploration challenges can be addressed. The evaluation of reservoirs and trapping styles of existing fields and discoveries is now possible with this unique dataset and additional opportunities can be revealed.

  • New Shallow Seismic Insights

    Author: Andrew Long
    Industry Insights - 31 May 2021

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    We will continue to use high-resolution seismic to understand the subsurface risks and opportunities in marine areas as we transition to renewables and lower carbon energy sources as a complement to fossil fuels. CO2 storage in aquifers must be monitored for shallow seal integrity and offshore wind farms require geotechnical ground models and seismic characterization of the near surface. This article addresses the question of whether we will necessarily require entirely new seismic acquisition solutions, or whether existing methods can be adapted to provide new value and insights.

    Towed-streamer seismic using tailored acquisition configurations provide an efficient method of accessing high-resolution datasets for several purposes, and some examples are given below. I also show how full wavefield imaging solutions can high-grade existing seismic data to significantly enhance the resolution and quality of shallow images.


  • Revealing new opportunities with a cost-effective towed-streamer MAZ solution in the South Viking Graben, Norway

    Author: Julien Oukili, Luca Limonta, Martin Bubner, Eric Mueller, Terje Kultom Karlsen
    First Break - 4 November 2020

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    The authors provide a fresh look at a new MAZ streamer concept that challenges existing multi-azimuth solutions, including OBS surveys, as it delivers a higher-quality dataset at a fraction of the cost and reduced environmental impact.

  • GeoStreamer X Viking Graben Delivers Game Changing Results

    Author: Julien Oukili, Eric Mueller, Ruben Janssen
    GEO - 1 October 2020

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    Full integrity PSDM data from the 2019 PGS GEoStreamer X acquisition program in the Lille Prinsen area of the Viking Graben is now available. It delivers on all its promises to provide the highest quality seismic imaging and attributes available today.

  • GeoStreamer X in the Viking Graben Illuminates Complex Targets

    Author: Kai Fløistad, Julien Oukili
    GeoExpro - 8 June 2020

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    To meet the industry demand for improved subsurface insight at a reduced cost and with faster turnaround time than ocean bottom surveys, PGS deployed a pioneering acquisition configuration in the Viking Graben in the autumn of 2019. Three months after the last shot on the GeoStreamer X survey in the Viking Graben, the early-out multi-azimuth (MAZ) PSDM seismic stack was delivered to pre-funders. From an interpreter’s point of view the results are stunning, and what started as a novel concept now provides new insight to geoscience teams in near-field exploration, appraisal and development.

    There are many targets in the area, ranging from Eocene sand injectites to fractured basement, and an approach integrating survey design, imaging solutions and quantitative interpretation has enabled a significant improvement in the resolution of these reservoirs. The main imaging challenges are the large shallow channels and massive sand mounds in the Miocene as these introduce shadow zones beneath them. Eocene cemented sand injectites, called V-brights, have anomalously high velocities which historically have been very difficult to estimate. Deeper, a thin, rugose Cretaceous chalk layer causes multiples and dispersion of the seismic energy.

  • Fast Delivery of GeoStreamer X Multi-Azimuth Data

    Author: Julien Oukili, Kai Fløistad
    GEO - 1 March 2020

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    GeoStreamer X represents a faster and more efficient method to improve illumination
    of complex targets.

  • GeoStreamer X Pilot Successful - So What's Next

    Author: Martin Widmaier
    GEO - 19 December 2019

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    Completion of the GeoStreamer X pilot survey proves that PGS’ novel marine seismic strategy for upgraded acquisition in any geological regime is practical, efficient and within reach. The first GeoStreamer X data is scheduled before next Easter. Planning has begun for 2020 projects.

  • Introducing the X factor

    Author: Halfdan Carstens
    GEO - 1 October 2019

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    With the introduction of GeoStreamer X, PGS challenges ocean bottom surveying with rapid turnaround time and substantially lower cost.