Industry Insights | Back-Propagating into the Future

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From least-squares migration, full waveform inversion, and neural networks to imaging and characterization by inversion. The title points to the powerful concept that is paving ways forward that can reduce uncertainty in seismic imaging and seismic characterization in the coming years. 

In the latest article in his Industry Insights series, Andrew Long discusses the important similarities and distinctions between RTM (Reverse Time Migration), LS-RTM (Least-Squares RTM) and FWI (Full Waveform inversion), and also relates their fundamental reliance upon back-projection to Deep Neural Network training used in many machine learning pursuits. 

This article also accompanies the TechByte webinars on LSM and AVO. You can find both the article and the webinars on

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