4D binning workflows customized to different survey geometry and processing strategies.

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PGS’ 4D binning workflows incorporate exhaustive selective criteria that can extended bin search and multi-vintage binning to allow selection of the best possible trace pairs. After 4D binning, the vintages are usually regularized to the center of the bins and with regular offsets (4D offset regularization).

Key Points

  • Binning is customized to the survey geometries and number of surveys being processed
  • Options can accommodate more than two surveys being processed

Customized 4D Binning Workflows

Extended bin search criteria are usually preferred as this removes selection bias imposed by the grid bin size. Pairs of traces from different bin sizes can be selected using this method to ensure traces with the smallest source position errors (ΔS) are chosen.

The multi-vintage binning option is used when more than two surveys are co-processed. The best average criteria combination between all surveys used, however, if the best trace pairs need to be selected, a sequential 4D processing workflow should be followed. A transfer function is then computed for each survey by estimating the difference between non-consecutive surveys. 

When the monitor survey acquisition geometry repeats the baseline survey geometry, PGS first applies shot regularization to make the receiver spreads identical between baseline and monitor datasets. The NRMS difference is typically improved quite considerably. The datasets are then processed through 4D binning and then 4D offset regularization.

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